A cancer can be defined when the normal cells lose their ability to control, their growth or multiplication and thus invade the tissues and spread to the body parts. Anal cancer is often called as squamous cell carcinoma which arises from the cells around or in the anal opening or in rare cases it may cause in the anal canal. This type of cancer is usually associated with human papiloma virus (HPV), where HPV cancers or cervical cancers have a high risk of developing into anal cancer. There are no exact symptoms for anal cancer as such but some might show bleeding from the anal area, lump or swelling near anus or change in the bowel habits etc. Staging is a way which describes the location of cancer, the stages include tumor, node and metastasis which is further grouped I, II, IIIA, IIIB and IV. The different types of anal cancer include melanoma, adenocarcinoma, basaloid transitional and cloacogenic cancer.
The statistics for anal cancer suggest that annually there about 6000 cases of anal cancer diagnosed in the U.S. and the number is increasing slowly. The major factors that drive the market for anal cancer therapeutics are aging population, sexually transmitted disease, multiple sexual partners and smoking. According to the World Health Organization 290 million women are suffering from HPV infection and due to unhealthy sex, the chances get doubled. For treating this anal cancer, early diagnosis is crucial which is only available in the developed countries or high-income countries and are accessible. Whereas in the low-income countries the diagnosis and treatment facilities are either costly or inaccessible. These factors are responsible for holding back the anal cancer therapeutics market and should be well tracked for future advancements.
The anal cancer therapeutics market can be classified on the basis of product type and distribution channel.
According to the product type, the anal cancer therapeutics can be sun-divided into the following:
- Chemotherapy drugs
According to the distribution channel, the anal cancer therapeutics can be sun-divided into the following:
- Long-term care centers
- Diagnostic Laboratories
Altogether 80% of anal cancers are developed after the age of 60 and the ones which occur prior to age 35 are mostly observed in men. Almost half of the anal caners are diagnosed before the cancer turns to be malignant but when the cancer is found through early diagnosis are treatable. The survival rate of anal cancer in male is 60% and 70% in female for 5 years. Most of the anal cancers are treated with combination therapy and some are treated with surgery when early diagnosed. Cancer treatment includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery which is also dependent on the stage of the tumor.
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Worldwide there are 1 or 2 cases per 100000 cases and accounts for about 1.5 % of the cases in the United States. Anal cancer therapeutics market share is more in North America followed by Europe. In U.K the incidence cases did not grow in the past few years and thus the anal cancer accounts for less than 1% of all the deaths. In the developed countries and developing countries several epidemiologic studies have found out that the chances for developing anal cancer can be directly related to sexual practices. Also the number of the sexually transmitted diseases has increased over the past couple of years leading to rise in the number of diseases and infections. The developed countries have proper healthcare facilities and thus treatment for anal cancer is possible.
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The major market players in the anal cancer therapeutics are GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Hospira, Inc., Global BioPharma, Inc., and Advaxis, Inc.